A new five-year study at New York University’s medical school has researchers looking for biological signals, known as biomarkers, that could provide reliable, objective evidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Researchers hope to recruit 1500 participants, with the ultimate goal developing inexpensive tests for PTSD and TBI. A similar study, which is seeking to identify PTSD biomarkers, is underway at Fort Bragg. Experts state that the lack of reliable markers for PTSD and mild TBI has had significant consequences, and that without clear-cut tests to spot these disorders early, they can go undetected until symptoms become disabling. Additionally, researchers state that misdiagnoses readily occur, leading to ineffective or even damaging treatments.